At the birth of Islam , there was no opposition to singing since the Prophet also joined the toil song at the digging of the trenches at Mecca.
However, the 4 Calpihs are alleged to have been in opposition to any indulgence in singing or music. As a result the rigid school of religious law in Iraq prohibited , and that more accomodating of Medina , allowed singing, and a whole library of literature – both for and against – came into existence on al Sama.
Indeed, a legal friction arose which argued that the cantillation ( taghbir ) of the Kuran was not the same as singing as we read in Ibn Khaldun. The ” Ikd ” of Abd Rabbiah argued in favour of the artistic song.
After the advent of Islam , there arose the professional musician ( mugghani ) , the first recorded being Tuways ( d.711 AD ). He and a Mugghani named ” Azzat al Mayla ” are said to have introduced a new type of song called the ” Ghina ” ( artistic song ) or Ghina al rakik ” ( graceful song ).
According to Ibn al Kalbi the ” Ghina ” is of 3 kinds 1) the nasib , which was the song of the riders, amongst others. 2) the sinad , which had a slow refrain ( taradji ), but was full of notes ( naghmat ) and 3) the Hazadj , which was quick ( khafif ).
Yet a new element has risen called the ” Ika ” (rhythm )